CSMA/CD, Switching, and VLANs
The bread-and-butter work of any Cisco engineer is installing, configuring, and troubleshooting switches.

Trunking, DTP, and Inter-VLAN Routing
You will only encounter networks using one switch in the smallest of offices, whereas you will usually find multiple switches forming part of the network infrastructure.

Router and Switch Security
Switches and routers do not come with any security configuration. You need to add this depending upon your business requirements.

IP Addressing
Welcome to what many people find to be one of the hardest areas of the CCNA syllabus to understand. In order to understand IP addressing for the CCNA exam, we must cover binary mathematics and the hexadecimal numbering system, classes of addresses, powers of two and rules such as subnet zero, and Broadcast and network addresses, as well as formulas to work out subnets and host address.

Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) is another strange subject, because Cisco has broken down NAT requirements between the ICND1 and the ICND2 syllabus.

IPv6 has been in development for several years and has actually been implemented on networks all over the world (in conjunction with IPv4). Many network engineers have expressed their fear about having to learn a new addressing method, and I’ve even heard many say that they hope to retire before it becomes a requirement

Troubleshooting NAT
About Lesson

Nine times out of ten, the router administrator has forgotten to add the IP NAT outside or IP NAT inside command to the router interfaces. In fact, this is almost always the problem! The next most frequent mistakes include the wrong ACL and a misspelled pool name (it is case sensitive).

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